Masculin ou féminin ?
Oh, the woes this question has brought you and every other French speaker out there.
You ask yourself whether a noun is masculine or feminine every time you need a verb agreement, adjective, definite article or indefinite article.
In short, this is the most persistent struggle in French. You encounter it in your early days as a French speaker and it crops back up every chance it gets, even when you’re an advanced French connoisseur.
Having a conversation? You need gender agreements. Brushing up on vocab? Better know the nouns’ genders. In fact, if you want to immerse yourself in French, then you’ve got to know your le from your la (definite articles) and your une from your un (indefinite articles).
But there are so many French words! How ever will we go through all of them and their genders?
Luckily there are some ways to jump that hurdle. Shortcuts, if you will.
Once you confidently know your masculines from your feminines in French, you’ll be giving the French natives a run for their money.
Why Gender Is So Important
If your native language doesn’t have grammatical gender, then your big question may be “Why?” before “How?” Why are some nouns boys and others girls? How can a noun have a gender? Surely they don’t have the anatomy to make a distinction?
Allow me to explain the insanity.
Bear with me for a moment as I take us back—way, way back to the origins of our modern languages.
Linguists have inferred that thousands of years ago there was a language called Proto-Indo-European (well, people didn’t call it that back then, but we do now). It’s believed that PIE originally made distinctions between nouns that were animate and inanimate. The animate nouns eventually branched off into masculine and feminine, and the inanimate into a neuter classification.
So blame your caveman ancestors for the extra work. English, spawning from PIE after a long saga of evolution, came to drop grammatical gender. French only dropped the neuter gender, and so here we are.
But…but…can’t we just fudge it? Who cares if we get it right? What about gender equality? Nope, it’s still important, even if it seems arbitrary that un pull (a sweater) is masculine and une lampe (a lamp) is feminine, you need to know it if you’re serious about French.
When You’ll Use French Gender
First things first, when you learn a French word, you’ll see it paired with either its definite or indefinite article.
The indefinite articles or “a/an” in English:
The definite articles or “the” in English:
The partitive articles or “some” in English:
de la (feminine)
In addition, you’ll need to know the gender in order to determine which pronoun to use. For example, when choosing personal pronouns Il (He) or Elle (She). Use these when describing what a noun does.
Then there are the adjectives, which have different spellings or pronunciations depending on the gender of the noun to which you’re applying them. And of course, for you time traveling connoisseurs, there are the gender agreements found in the perfect tense and all of its grammatically derivative compound tenses.
What’s the message here? When you learn vocabulary, don’t forget to learn whether it’s a skirt-wearing, pink-loving feminine noun or a roughhousing masculine noun!
How to Conquer French Gender Rules in a Nutshell
Most French teachers and fellow French speakers will tell you that there’s no rhyme or reason to whether a noun is masculine or feminine. While there’s some truth to this, largely due to the long-term evolution of the French language, there are some rules (and exceptions) to get most nouns on lock.
Remember that your instincts about a word may not always be correct, for example le féminisme (feminism) is masculine and la masculinité (masculinity) is feminine. Makes total sense.
Look at the Ending
This may be the most effective way to determine the gender of a noun when you’re stumped. Of course, the best method is just memorizing the gender when you learn the noun but, hey, nobody’s perfect.
Here’s a list of common endings for both masculine and feminine nouns, but keep in mind that these rules only apply around 90% of the time. Those are good odds, and French natives even have trouble with those pesky exceptions.
If it ends with_____it may be masculine.
-il, -ail, -eil, -euil
-am, -um, -em
-an, -and, -ant, -ent, -in, -int, -om, -ond, -ont
Most nouns that end with a consonant will be masculine. Keyword: MOST.
If it ends with_____ it may be feminine.
-tion, -sion and -son
-consonant + -ie
Most combinations of vowel + consonant + –ewill be feminine, such as: -ine, -elle, -esse, -ette, etc.
Certain Categories of Nouns Show Gender
Fellow world travelers, this one’s for you! If a city or a place name does not end in -e, then it’s most likely masculine. If a city or place names ends in -e, then it’s generally feminine. This is a pretty standard rule (thankfully easy to remember) with only a handful of exceptions, noted below:
le Mexique (Mexico)
le Bélize (Belize)
le Mozambique (Mozambique)
Nouns that are derived from a verb—referring to something or someone carrying out that verb’s action—typically use the ending-eur, and will be masculine.
Examples: l’aspirateur (the vacuum),l’ordinateur (the computer).
Nouns that are derived from adjectives and end with –eurare feminine.
Examples: larougeur (the redness), la largeur (the width), la pâleur(the paleness)
Nouns That Go Both Ways
When talking about certain animals in French, you refer to the male version of the species with a masculine noun and the female of the species with a feminine noun. Finally, some logic!
Examples: un étalon(a stallion), un cerf (a stag), une chatte(female cat), un chat (a male cat), etc.
Although (sad face) there are exceptions to these rules as well. So many exceptions! So many! Some nouns for animals refer to both genders.
Examples: la souris(the mouse), le cheval (the horse).
Wouldn’t it be nice if French just didn’t have exceptions?
This is another category that employs some logic.
Most job titles have both a masculine and feminine form. Many of them started out as exclusively masculine words because, back in the old days of soul-crushing sexism, only men held those jobs. As the years went on and women began to work a diverse array of jobs, more and more of these job titles took on feminine forms.
This isn’t all without politics of course. Many people argue that it’s more sexist to have separate job titles for men and women and not just one word for the job title. Either way, here are some examples of the masculine and feminine forms:
un acteur, une actrice(actor)
un boulanger, une boulangère(baker)
un infirmier, une infirmière (nurse)
un caissier, une caissière (cashier)
un avocat, une avocate (lawyer)
un pharmacien, une pharmacienne(pharmacist)
un étudiant, une étudiante (student)
un serveur, une serveuse (waiter)
The Rules of Agreement
Now that you have a good handle on which nouns are likely to be feminine and which are likely to be masculine, it’s time to chat about what to do with that information.
Gender agreements are important in both conversation and writing. The gender of a noun can change the adjectives applied to it and some verb tenses, not to mention it’ll determine which pronouns to use.
Adjectives in French don’t just conform to the gender, but also the quantity. Most adjectives have four forms: masculine singular, feminine singular, masculine plural and feminine plural.
General Guidelines for Adjective Gender
This is the most common way adjectives are modified for gender and quantity.
Masculine Singular: amusant(fun), bleu(blue), vert(green), content(happy)
Feminine Singular: amusante, bleue, verte, contente
Masculine Plural: amusants, bleus, verts, contents
Feminine Plural: amusantes, bleues, vertes, contentes
You simply add either an –e, -s, or –es.
Other Adjective Rules:
If the masculine form of an adjective ends in an unaccented –e, then the feminine form is the same and only an -sis needed for plural forms. Example: triste (sad), triste, tristes, tristes.
If the masculine form of an adjective ends in –l or –n, then you make it feminine by doubling the consonant. Example: bon (good),bonne, bons, bonnes.
If the masculine form of an adjective ends in -eror –et, then you’ll add an accent for the feminine. Example: cher (expensive), chère, chers, chères
If it ends in -c, then –cheis the feminine ending. Example: blanc (white),blanche, blancs, blanches.
If it ends in -eux, then –euse is the feminine ending. Example: amoureux (romantic),amoureuse, amoureux, amoureuses.
If it ends in –f, then -ve is the feminine ending. Example: actif (active), active, actifs, actives.
If it ends in-eur, then –euseis usually the feminine. Example: menteur (lying),menteuse, menteurs, menteuses.
So irregular they don’t have a category:
These have no rhyme or reason, but you’ll find yourself using them often. These are listed in the order of: masculine, masculine before a vowel, feminine, masculine plural, and feminine plural.
Beautiful:beau, bel, belle, beaux, belles
Crazy: fou, fol, folle, fous, folles
New: nouveau, nouvel, nouvelle, nouveaux, nouvelles
Old: vieux, vieil, vieille, vieux, vieilles
Luckily this part is pretty straightforward, no weird irregular endings for the feminine form.
Be aware that with some verb tenses, you’ll need to be certain about what gender your noun is in order to correctly conjugate.
In the perfect tense and other compound tenses (such as the past perfect and the past conditional) when you use êtreas your helping verb, you’ll need to make an agreement with your subject. Usually this is straightforward because the subject is eitherje, tu, il, elle, nous, vous, ils, or elles.If a noun is your subject, make sure you’re certain of its gender so you can make the proper agreements.
Here’s an example using the past tense of aller (to go):
Je suis allé(e).
Tu es allé(e).
Il est allé.
Elle est allé.
Nous sommes allé(e)s.
Vous êtes allé(e)(s)
Ils sont allés.
Elles sont allées.
The endings stay the same for each verb, and the rules are the same if the subject is say, une lampe, and not a personal pronoun. Just don’t forget to agree.
In addition, when you have a direct object in the past tense and are using the helping verb avoir, then you’ll have to make the verb agree with the direct object. It’s also important to know the gender in these cases. Here’s an example:
A: Est-ce que vous avez fait la tarte? (Did you make the pie?)
B: Oui, je l’ai faite. (Yes, I made it.)
Since the direct object in this sentence was feminine, you have to agree the verb. The endings are the same as when you use the helping verb être.
Fun Tools for French Gender Practice
The good news is that by reading, listening carefully and practicing, noun genders and agreements will become second nature to you.
Cracking open a book is one of the best ways to learn vocabulary and, in turn, subconsciously learn your he’s from your she’s. You can even get away with reading comic books or magazines.
For intermediate learners who have developed an ear for subtleties in the French language, using audio resources or watching films can help increase your overall fluency, which in turn helps you to distinguish between masculine or feminine. Before you know it, you’ll actually hear the difference between la and le in fast-talking films without straining your ears.
If you’re just getting started and need some foundation, check out this video for a lesson on adjective agreements. Check this video out if you need a beginner’s lesson on the basics of gender.
And of course, we’re all looking for excuses to play games and donate rice. Right? This website lets you answer questions about different subjects (including French), and with every question you get right, ten grains of rice are donated to people in need. A lot of the questions are vocabulary questions, including the gender of the noun in the question.
As you delve into the fun world of the past tense, pronouns and compound tenses, you’ll find the gender of your nouns becoming more and more important. There may seem to be no sense to it—and often there isn’t—but it’s something us French speakers must try to conquer, both beginners and fluent speakers alike!
And One More Thing…
Wanna know how to crush French gender rules in a nutshell?
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Don’t stop there, though. Use FluentU’s learn mode to actively practice all the vocabulary in any video with vocabulary lists, flashcards, quizzes and fun activities like “fill in the blank.”
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For specialized articles on surgical procedures, see Sex reassignment surgery (male-to-female) and Sex reassignment surgery (female-to-male).
Sex reassignment surgery or SRS (also known as gender reassignment surgery, gender confirmation surgery, genital reconstruction surgery, gender-affirming surgery, or sex realignment surgery) is the surgical procedure (or procedures) by which a transgender person's physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are altered to resemble that socially associated with their identified gender. It is part of a treatment for gender dysphoria in transgender people. Related genital surgeries may also be performed on intersex people, often in infancy. A 2013 statement by the United NationsSpecial Rapporteur on Torture condemns the nonconsensual use of normalization surgery on intersex people.
The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) calls this procedure Gender Confirmation Surgery or GCS. Another term for SRS includes sex reconstruction surgery, and more clinical terms, such as feminizing genitoplasty or penectomy, orchiectomy, and vaginoplasty, are used medically for trans women, with masculinizing genitoplasty, metoidioplasty or phalloplasty often similarly used for trans men.
People who pursue sex reassignment surgery are usually referred to as transsexual (derived from "trans", meaning "across", "through", or "change", and "sexual", pertaining to the sexual characteristics—but not necessarily sexual actions—of a person).
While individuals who have undergone and completed SRS are sometimes referred to as transsexed individuals, the term transsexed is not to be confused with the term transsexual, which may also refer to individuals who have not undergone SRS, yet whose anatomical sex may not match their psychological sense of personal gender identity.
Sex reassignment surgery performed on unconsenting minors (babies and children) may result in catastrophic outcomes (including PTSD and suicide—such as in the David Reimer case, following a botched circumcision) when the individual's sexual identity (determined by neuroanatomical brain wiring) is discrepant with the surgical reassignment previously imposed.Milton Diamond at the John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii recommended that physicians do not perform surgery on children until they are old enough to give informed consent, assign such infants in the gender to which they will probably best adjust, and refrain from adding shame, stigma and secrecy to the issue, by assisting intersexual people to meet and associate with others of like condition. Diamond considered the intersex condition as a difference of sex development, not as a disorder.
Scope and procedures
The best known of these surgeries are those that reshape the genitals, which are also known as genital reassignment surgery or genital reconstruction surgery (GRS)- or bottom surgery (the latter is named in contrast to top surgery, which is surgery to the breasts; bottom surgery does not refer to surgery on the buttocks in this context). However, the meaning of "sex reassignment surgery" has been clarified by the medical subspecialty organization, the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH), to include any of a larger number of surgical procedures performed as part of a medical treatment for "gender dysphoria" or "transsexualism". According to WPATH, medically necessary sex reassignment surgeries include "complete hysterectomy, bilateral mastectomy, chest reconstruction or augmentation ... including breast prostheses if necessary, genital reconstruction (by various techniques which must be appropriate to each patient ...)... and certain facial plastic reconstruction." In addition, other non-surgical procedures are also considered medically necessary treatments by WPATH, including facial electrolysis.
A growing number of public and commercial health insurance plans in the United States now contain defined benefits covering sex reassignment-related procedures, usually including genital reconstruction surgery (MTF and FTM), chest reconstruction (FTM), breast augmentation (MTF), and hysterectomy (FTM). In June 2008, the American Medical Association (AMA) House of Delegates stated that the denial to patients with gender dysphoria or otherwise covered benefits represents discrimination, and that the AMA supports "public and private health insurance coverage for treatment for gender dysphoria as recommended by the patient's physician." Other organizations have issued similar statements, including WPATH, the American Psychological Association, and the National Association of Social Workers.
Different SRS procedures
The array of medically indicated surgeries differs between trans women (male to female) and trans men (female to male). For trans women, genital reconstruction usually involves the surgical construction of a vagina, by means of penile inversion or the sigmoid colon neovagina technique; or, more recently, non-penile inversion techniques that provide greater resemblance to the genitals of cisgender women. For trans men, genital reconstruction may involve construction of a penis through either phalloplasty or metoidioplasty. For both trans women and trans men, genital surgery may also involve other medically necessary ancillary procedures, such as orchiectomy, penectomy, mastectomy or vaginectomy.
As underscored by WPATH, a medically assisted transition from one sex to another may entail any of a variety of non-genital surgical procedures, any of which are considered "sex reassignment surgery" when performed as part of treatment for gender identity disorder. For trans men, these may include mastectomy (removal of the breasts) and chest reconstruction (the shaping of a male-contoured chest), or hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (removal of ovaries and Fallopian tubes). For some trans women, facial feminization surgery, hair implants, and breast augmentation are also aesthetic components of their surgical treatment.
People with HIV or hepatitis C may have difficulty finding a surgeon able to perform successful surgery. Many surgeons operate in small private clinics that cannot treat potential complications in these populations. Some surgeons charge higher fees for HIV and hepatitis C-positive patients; other medical professionals assert that it is unethical to deny surgical or hormonal treatments to transsexuals solely on the basis of their HIV or hepatitis status.
Other health conditions such as diabetes, abnormal blood clotting, ostomies, and obesity do not usually present a problem to experienced surgeons. The conditions do increase the anesthetic risk and the rate of post-operative complications. Surgeons may require overweight patients to reduce their weight before surgery, any patients to refrain from hormone replacement before surgery, and smoking patients to refrain from smoking before and after surgery. Surgeons commonly stipulate the latter regardless of the type of operation.
Potential future advances
See also: Transgender pregnancy, Uterus transplantation § Application on transgender women, and Male pregnancy § Humans
Medical advances may eventually make childbearing possible by using a donor uterus long enough to carry a child to term as anti-rejection drugs do not seem to affect the fetus. The DNA in a donated ovum can be removed and replaced with the DNA of the receiver. Further in the future, stem cell biotechnology may also make this possible, with no need for anti-rejection drugs.
Standards of care
See also: Legal aspects of transgenderism
Sex reassignment surgery can be difficult to obtain, due to a combination of financial barriers and lack of providers. An increasing number of surgeons are now training to perform such surgeries. In many regions, an individual's pursuit of SRS is often governed, or at least guided, by documents called Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender Nonconforming People (SOC). The most widespread SOC in this field is published and frequently revised by the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH, formerly the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association or HBIGDA). Many jurisdictions and medical boards in the United States and other countries recognize the WPATH Standards of Care for the treatment of transsexualism. For many individuals, these may require a minimum duration of psychological evaluation and living as a member of the target gender full-time, sometimes called the real life experience (RLE) (sometimes mistakenly referred to as the real life test (RLT)) before genital reconstruction or other sex reassignment surgeries are permitted.
Standards of Care usually give certain very specific "minimum" requirements as guidelines for progressing with treatment for transsexualism, including accessing cross-gender hormone replacement or many surgical interventions. For this and many other reasons, both the WPATH-SOC and other SOCs are highly controversial and often maligned documents among transgender patients seeking surgery. Alternative local standards of care exist, such as in the Netherlands, Germany, and Italy. Much of the criticism surrounding the WPATH/HBIGDA-SOC applies to these as well, and some of these SOCs (mostly European SOC) are actually based on much older versions of the WPATH-SOC. Other SOCs are entirely independent of the WPATH. The criteria of many of those SOCs are stricter than the latest revision of the WPATH-SOC. Many qualified surgeons in North America and many in Europe adhere almost unswervingly to the WPATH-SOC or other SOCs. However, in the United States many experienced surgeons are able to apply the WPATH SOC in ways which respond to an individual's medical circumstances, as is consistent with the SOC.
Most surgeons require two letters of recommendation for sex reassignment surgery. At least one of these letters must be from a mental health professional experienced in diagnosing gender identity disorder, who has known the patient for over a year. Letters must state that sex reassignment surgery is the correct course of treatment for the patient.
Many medical professionals and numerous professional associations have stated that surgical interventions should not be required in order for transsexual individuals to change sex designation on identity documents. However, depending on the legal requirements of many jurisdictions, transsexual and transgender people are often unable to change the listing of their sex in public records unless they can furnish a physician's letter attesting that sex reassignment surgery has been performed. In some jurisdictions legal gender change is prohibited in any circumstances, even after genital or other surgery or treatment.
Quality of life and physical health
Patients of sex reassignment surgery may experience changes in their physical health and quality of life, the side effects of sex steroid treatment. Hence, transgender people should be well informed of these risks before choosing to undergo SRS.
Several studies tried to measure the quality of life and self-perceive physical health using different scales. Overall, transsexual people have rated their self-perceived quality of life as ‘normal’ or ‘quite good’, however, their overall score was still lower than the control group. Another study showed a similar level of quality of life in transsexual individuals and the control group. Nonetheless, a study with long-term data suggested that albeit quality of life of patients 15 years after sex reassignment surgery is similar to controls, their scores in the domains of physical and personal limitations were significantly lower. On the other hand, research has found that quality of life of transsexual patients could be enhanced by other variables. For instance, trans men obtained a higher self-perceived health score than women because they had a higher level of testosterone than them. Trans women who had undergone face feminization surgery have reported higher satisfaction in different aspects of their quality of life, including their general physical health.
Looking specifically at transsexual’s genital sensitivities, trans men and trans women are capable of maintaining their genital sensitivities after SRS. However, these are counted upon the procedures and surgical tricks which are used to preserve the sensitivity. Considering the importance of genital sensitivity in helping transsexual individuals to avoid unnecessary harm or injuries to the genitals, allowing trans men to obtain an erection and perform the insertion of the erect penile prosthesis after phalloplasty, the ability for transsexual to experience erogenous and tactile sensitivity in their reconstructed genitals is one of the essential objectives surgeons want to achieve in SRS Moreover, studies have also found that the critical procedure for genital sensitivity maintenance and achieving orgasms after phalloplasty is to preserve both the clitoris hood and the clitoris underneath the reconstructed phallus.
Erogenous Sensitivity is measured by the capabilities to reach orgasms in genital sexual activities, like masturbation and intercourse. Many studies reviewed that both trans men and trans women have reported an increase of orgasms in both sexual activities, implying the possibilities to maintain or even enhance genital sensitivity after SRS.
Psychological and social consequences
This article or section appears to contradict itself. Please see the talk page for more information.(April 2016)
After sex reassignment surgery, transsexuals (people who underwent cross-sex hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery) tend to be less gender dysphoric. They also normally function well both socially and psychologically. Anxiety, depression and hostility levels were lower after sex reassignment surgery. They also tend to score well for self-perceived mental health, which is independent from sexual satisfaction. Many studies have been carried out to investigate satisfaction levels of patients after sex reassignment surgery. In these studies, most of the patients have reported being very happy with the results and very few of the patients have expressed regret for undergoing sex reassignment surgery.
Although studies have suggested that the positive consequences of sex reassignment surgery outweigh the negative consequences, It has been suggested that most studies investigating the outcomes of sex reassignment surgery are flawed as they have only included a small percentage of sex reassignment surgery patients in their studies. These methodological limitations such as lack of double-blind randomised controls, small number of participants due to the rarity of transsexualism, high drop-out rates and low follow-up rates, which would indicate need for continued study.
Persistent regret can occur after sex reassignment surgery. Regret may be due to unresolved gender dysphoria, or a weak and fluctuating sense of identity, and may even lead to suicide. During the process of sex reassignment surgery, transsexuals may become victims of different social obstacles such as discrimination, prejudice and stigmatising behaviours. The rejection faced by transsexuals is much more severe than what is experienced by LGB individuals. The hostile environment may trigger or worsen internalised transphobia, depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress.
Many patients perceive the outcome of the surgery as not only medically but also psychologically important. Social support can help them to relate to their minority identity, ascertain their trans identity and reduce minority stress. Therefore, it is suggested that psychological support is crucial for patients after sex reassignment surgery, which helps them feel accepted and have confidence in the outcome of the surgery; also, psychological support will become increasingly important for patients with lengthier sex reassignment surgery process.
The majority of the transsexual individuals have reported enjoying better sex lives and improved sexual satisfaction after sex reassignment surgery. The enhancement of sexual satisfaction was positively related to the satisfaction of new primary sex characteristics. Before undergoing SRS, transsexual patients possessed unwanted sex organs which they were eager to remove. Hence, they were frigid and not enthusiastic about engaging in sexual activity. In consequence, transsexuals individuals who have undergone SRS are more satisfied with their bodies and experienced less stress when participating in sexual activity.
Most of the individuals have reported that they have experienced sexual excitement during sexual activity, including masturbation. The ability to obtain orgasms is positively associated with sexual satisfaction. Frequency and intensity of orgasms are substantially different among transsexual men and transsexual women. Almost all female-to-male individuals have revealed an increase in sexual excitement and are capable of achieving orgasms through sexual activity with a partner or via masturbation, whereas only 85% of the male-to-female individuals are able to achieve orgasms after SRS. A study found that both transmen and transwomen reported that they had experienced transformation in their orgasms sensuality. The female-to-male transgender individuals reported that they had been experiencing intensified and stronger excitements while male-to-female individuals have been encountering longer and more gentle feelings.
The rates of masturbation have also changed after sex reassignment surgery for both trans women and trans men. A study reported an overall increase of masturbation frequencies exhibited in most transsexual individuals and 78% of them were able to reach orgasm by masturbation after SRS. A study showed that there were differences in masturbation frequencies between trans men and trans women, in which female-to-male individuals masturbated more often than male to female The possible reasons for the differences in masturbation frequency could be associated with the surge of libido, which was caused by the testosterone therapies, or the withdrawal of gender dysphoria.
Concerning transsexuals’ expectations for different aspects of their life, the sexual aspects have the lowest level of satisfaction among all other elements (physical, emotional and social levels). When comparing transsexuals with biological individuals of the same gender, trans women had a similar sexual satisfaction to biological women, but trans men had a lower level of sexual satisfaction to biological men. Moreover, trans men also had a lower sexual satisfaction with their sexual life than trans women.
Main article: Sex assignment § Assignment in cases of infants with intersex traits, or cases of trauma
Infants born with intersex conditions might undergo interventions at or close to birth. This is controversial because of the human rights implications.
Society and culture
The Iranian government's response to homosexuality is to endorse, and fully pay for, sex reassignment surgery. The leader of Iran's Islamic Revolution, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, issued a fatwa declaring sex reassignment surgery permissible for "diagnosed transsexuals". Eshaghian's documentary, Be Like Others, chronicles a number of stories of Iranian gay men who feel transitioning is the only way to avoid further persecution, jail, or execution. The head of Iran's main transsexual organization, Maryam Khatoon Molkara—who convinced Khomeini to issue the fatwa on transsexuality—confirmed that some people who undergo operations are gay rather than transsexual.
Thailand is the country that performs the most sex reassignment surgeries, followed by Iran.
India is offering affordable sex reassignment surgery to a growing number of medical tourists.
In 2017, the United StatesDefense Health Agency for the first time approved payment for sex reassignment surgery for an active-duty U.S. military service member. The patient, an infantry soldier who identifies as a woman, had already begun a course of treatment for gender reassignment. The procedure, which the treating doctor deemed medically necessary, was performed on November 14 at a private hospital, since U.S. military hospitals lack the requisite surgical expertise.
In Berlin in 1931, Dora Richter, became the first known transgender woman to undergo the vaginoplasty surgical approach.
This was followed by Lili Elbe in Dresden during 1930–1931. She started with the removal of her original sex organs, the operation supervised by Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld. Lili went on to have four more subsequent operations that included an unsuccessful uterine transplant, the rejection of which resulted in death. An earlier known recipient of this was Magnus Hirschfeld's housekeeper, but their identity is unclear at this time.
On 12 June 2003, the European Court of Human Rights ruled in favor of Van Kück, a German trans woman whose insurance company denied her reimbursement for sex reassignment surgery as well as hormone replacement therapy. The legal arguments related to the Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights as well as the Article 8. This affair is referred to as Van Kück vs Germany.
In 2011, Christiane Völling won the first successful case brought by an intersex person against a surgeon for non-consensual surgical intervention described by the International Commission of Jurists as "an example of an individual who was subjected to sex reassignment surgery without full knowledge or consent".
As of 2017 some European countries, mostly eastern, require forced sterilisation for the legal recognition of sex reassignment.
- ^Report of the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture, Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, February 2013.
- ^Center for Human Rights & Humanitarian Law; Washington College of Law; American University (2014). Torture in Healthcare Settings: Reflections on the Special Rapporteur on Torture's 2013 Thematic Report. Washington, DC: Center for Human Rights & Humanitarian Law.
- ^"Gender Confirmation Surgeries". American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
- ^"About ASPS". American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
- ^ abcdefghijklDe Cuypere, G.; TSjoen, G.; Beerten, R.; Selvaggi, G.; De Sutter, P.; Hoebeke, P.; Monstrey, S.; Vansteenwegen, A.; Rubens, R. (2005). "Sexual and Physical Health After Sex Reassignment Surgery". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 34 (6): 679–690. doi:10.1007/s10508-005-7926-5. PMID 16362252.
- ^Boyle, G.J.(2005). The scandal of genital mutilation surgery on infants (pp. 95-100). In L. May (Ed.), Transgenders and Intersexuals, Bowden, South Australia: Fast Lane (imprint of East Street Publications). ISBN 1-9210370-7-5ISBN 9-780975-114544
- ^Colapinto, J. (2002). As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. Sydney: Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 0-7322-7433-8ISBN 9-780732-274337
- ^"Sexual Identity, Monozygotic Twins Reared in Discordant Sex Roles and a BBC Follow-Up". Milton Diamond, Ph.D. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
- ^Diamond, Milton; Sigmundson, H. Keith (October 1997). "Management of intersexuality. Guidelines for dealing with persons with ambiguous genitalia". Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 151 (10): 1046–50. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1997.02170470080015. PMID 9343018. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- ^Diamond, Milton; Beh, Hazel. (2008). "Changes In Management Of Children With Differences Of Sex Development". Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism. 4 (1): 4–5.
- ^see WPATH "Clarification on Medical Necessity of Treatment, sex Reassignment, and Insurance Coverage in the U.S." available at: "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 2011-09-30. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
- ^See discussion of insurance exclusions at: http://www.hrc.org/issues/transgender/9568.htm
- ^AMA Resolution 122 "Removing Financial Barriers to Care for Transgender Patients". see: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/mm/15/digest_of_actions.pdf
- ^See WPATH Clarification Statement
- ^APA Policy Statement Transgender, Gender Identity, and Gender Expression Non-Discrimination. See online at: http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbc/policy/transgender.pdf
- ^NASW Policy Statement on Transgender and Gender Identity Issues, revised August 2008. See www.socialworkers.org
- ^See WPATH Standards of Care, also WPATH Clarification. www.wpath.org
- ^Doctors plan uterus transplants to help women with removed, damaged wombs have babies. Associated Press.
- ^Fageeh, W.; Raffa, H.; Jabbad, H.; Marzouki, A. (2002). "Transplantation of the human uterus". International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 76 (3): 245–251. doi:10.1016/S0020-7292(01)00597-5. PMID 11880127.
- ^Del Priore, G.; Stega, J.; Sieunarine, K.; Ungar, L.; Smith, J. R. (2007). "Human Uterus Retrieval From a Multi-Organ Donor". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 109 (1): 101–104. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000248535.58004.2f. PMID 17197594.
- ^Nair, A.; Stega, J.; Smith, J. R.; Del Priore, G. (2008). "Uterus Transplant: Evidence and Ethics". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1127 (1): 83–91. Bibcode:2008NYASA1127...83N. doi:10.1196/annals.1434.003. PMID 18443334.
- ^"Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender Nonconforming People"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on September 20, 2012. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
- ^"WPATH Standards of Care". Tssurgeryguide.com. 2003-12-17. Retrieved 2014-08-11.
- ^See WPATH Clarification Statement, APA Policy Statement, and NASW Policy Statement
- ^Gómez-Gil, Esther; Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Antonio, Isabel Esteva de; Guillamon, Antonio; Salamero, Manel (2013-08-13). "Determinants of quality of life in Spanish transsexuals attending a gender unit before genital sex reassignment surgery". Quality of Life Research. 23 (2): 669–676. doi:10.1007/s11136-013-0497-3. ISSN 0962-9343. PMID 23943260.
- ^Castellano, E.; Crespi, C.; Dell’Aquila, C.; Rosato, R.; Catalano, C.; Mineccia, V.; Motta, G.; Botto, E.; Manieri, C. (2015-10-20). "Quality of life and hormones after sex reassignment surgery". Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 38 (12): 1373–1381. doi:10.1007/s40618-015-0398-0. ISSN 1720-8386. PMID 26486135.
- ^Kuhn, Annette; Bodmer, Christine; Stadlmayr, Werner; Kuhn, Peter; Mueller, Michael D.; Birkhäuser, Martin (2009). "Quality of life 15 years after sex reassignment surgery for transsexualism". Fertility and Sterility. 92 (5): 1685–1689.e3. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.08.126. PMID 18990387.
- ^Ainsworth, Tiffiny A.; Spiegel, Jeffrey H. (2010-05-12). "Quality of life of individuals with and without facial feminization surgery or gender reassignment surgery". Quality of Life Research. 19 (7): 1019–1024. doi:10.1007/s11136-010-9668-7. ISSN 0962-9343. PMID 20461468.
- ^ abcdSelvaggi, G., Monstrey, S., Ceulemans, P., T'Sjoen, G., De Cuypere, G., & Hoebeke, P. (2007). "Genital sensitivity after sex reassignment surgery in transsexual patients". Annals of Plastic Surgery. 58 (4): 427–433. doi:10.1097/01.sap.0000238428.91834.be. PMID 17413887.
- ^ abHage, J. J., Bouman, F. G., De Graaf, F. H., & Bloem, J. J. (1993). "Construction of the neophallus in female-to-male transsexuals: the Amsterdam experience". The Journal of Urology. 149 (6): 1463–1468. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(17)36416-9. PMID 8501789.
- ^ abcdefWierckx, K.; Van Caenegem, E.; Elaut, E.; Dedecker, D.; Van de Peer, F.; Toye, K.; Hoebeke, P.; Monstrey, S.; De Cuypere, G.; T’Sjoen, G. (2011). "Quality of life and sexual health after sex reassignment surgery in transsexual men". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 8 (12): 3379–3388. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02348.x. PMID 21699661.
- ^Smith, Y. L. S.; Van Goozen, S. H. M.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2001). "Adolescents with gender identity disorder who were accepted or rejected for sex reassignment surgery: a prospective follow-up study". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 40 (4): 472–481. doi:10.1097/00004583-200104000-00017.
- ^Lawrence, A. A. (2003). "Factors associated with satisfaction or regret following male-to-female sex reassignment surgery". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 32 (4): 299–315. doi:10.1023/A:1024086814364. PMID 12856892.
- ^Monstrey, S.; Vercruysse Jr., H.; De Cuypere, G. (2009). "Is Gender Reassignment Surgery Evidence Based? Recommendation for the Seventh Version of the WPATH Standards of Care". International Journal of Transgenderism. 11 (3): 206–214. doi:10.1080/15532730903383799.