Here are six common uses of the –ing form:
1. The –ing form is used in progressive verb tenses with auxiliary verbs (helping verbs). These are in active voice. Here are some examples:
- I amdoing my homework.
- I have beenwriting all day.
- I waswriting when the pizza arrived.
2. The –ing form can function as a noun. These nouns are called gerunds and can be the subject of a clause, followed by a third-person singular (he/she/it) form of the verb. The gerund in the following sample sentences is bolded, and the verb is italicized:
- Writingis an important skill.
- Hikingis one of my favorite activities.
- Reading before bed helps me fall asleep.
3. The -ing noun (or gerund) can be the direct object of certain verbs. Some verbs that are followed by a gerund are the following:
The verb in the following sample sentences is italicized, and the gerund is bolded:
- He often avoidsanswering his phone.
- I consideredconducting semistructured interviews.
- She suggestedtaking notes.
4. The -ing form is used after a preposition. The preposition in the following example sentences is italicized, and the –ing is bolded:
- Beforeconducting the research, it is necessary to complete a literature review.
- Her experience ininterviewing will be beneficial.
- He is bad at remembering appointments.
- They complained aboutdriving in rush hour.
5. Adjectives are sometimes formed using –ing. The –ing in the following example sentences is bolded:
- I read an interesting book.
- The barking dog was annoying.
6. The –ing form is sometimes used to include additional information in a sentence in a reduced relative clause. The –ing in the following example sentences is bolded, and the full relative clause is italicized:
- The woman wearing a dress is sitting by the window. (The woman who iswearing a dress is sitting by the window.)
- The pens sitting on the desk belong to the teacher. (The pens that aresitting on the desk belong to the teacher.)
Несмотря на все попытки забыть утренний разговор с Дэвидом, он никак не выходил у нее из головы. Она понимала, что говорила с ним слишком сурово, и молила Бога, чтобы в Испании у него все прошло хорошо. Мысли Сьюзан прервал громкий звук открываемой стеклянной двери.
Она оглянулась и застонала.