Why Did the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745 Fail?
...Why did the Jacobite rebellion of 1745 fail? There were three main reasons for the failure of the rebellion. These were Bonnie Prince Charlie and his weaknesses and mistakes, the strengths of the British army and other reasons; such as the behaviour and attitude of the Highlanders and the English Catholics. The first main reason is the weaknesses and mistakes of Bonnie Prince Charlie. These include Bonnie Prince Charlie’s decision to push on into England, after he had Scotland more or less under his control. His advisers said he should stay in Scotland, but Charles disagreed, thinking he would gain more money and soldiers from English Catholics. When they reached London, Charles only had about 300 English supporters join his army and none of them were important or wealthy Catholics. Charles wanted to carry on and grasp London and the crown, when they reached Derby, but his advisers said to turn back. The Highlanders were uneasy at being so far south. They needed to get home because there was work to be done. How could they be sure if they were even going to be successful? Depressed and demoralised, the Highlanders trudged back to Scotland. They were freezing and starving and to make matters worse they were pursued by English soldiers. When they reached Culloden Lord George Murray, one of Charles’ best commanders, advised that the Jacobites should cross to the soft, mossy ground over Nairn Water. There the ground was ideal for the Highlander’s fighting techniques and...
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Did the Progressivism Fail?
...Lindsay Lombardi Professor Rodabaugh HIST 1051 3 March 2013 Summary: Issue 8 Madaras/SoRelle, Taking Sides “Did the Progressivism Fail?” YES: “My thesis is that progressivism failed. It failed in what it-or what those who shaped it-conceived to be its principal objective. And that was, over and above everything else, to restore or maintain the conventional consensus on a particular view of the universe, a particular set of values, and a particular constellation of behavioral modes in the country’s commerce, its industry, its social relations, and its politics. Such a view, such values, such modes were challenged by the influx of diverse religious and ethnic elements into the nation’s social and intellectual stream, by the overwhelming economic success and power of the corporate form of business organization, by the subordination of the work-ethic bound up within the old proprietary and craft enterprise system, and by the increasing centrality of a growing proportion of low-income, unskilled, wage-earning classes in the nation’s economy and social structure.” NO: “Again and again, they acknowledged the existence of social disharmony more fully and frankly than had nineteenth-century Americans. Nearly every social and economic reform of the era was predicated on the progressive recognition that diverse cultural and occupational groups had conflicting interests, and that the responsibility for mitigating and adjusting those differences lay with the whole society, usually...
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Why Did Gorbachev's Reforms Fail and How Did Yeltsin Rise to Power?
...Why did Gorbachev's reforms fail and how did Yeltsin rise to power? In typical political terms, Gorbachev unsuccessful, and did thus catastrophically: the "democratic reformation" he tried to enact within the Soviet Union led to the breakup of his state and country. However that's not the total story of his six and a half years as leader, throughout that Gorbachev had two unprecedented achievements. He led Russia (then Soviet Russia) nearer to real democracy than it had ever been in its centuries-long history. And, with the partners he found in American presidents Ronald Reagan and the first George Bush, he came nearer to ending the decades-long cold war than had anyone before him. Nor is it reasonable to assume that Gorbachev should have completed those undertakings. Few transformational leaders, even "event-making" and "historically fateful" ones, are able to see their missions to completion. This is especially true of leaders of great reformations, whose nature and period generate additional opposition and problems than their initiators (unless they are a Stalin) have power or time to overcome. Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal, to require a well-known example, a perestroika of American capitalism, continued to unfold and undergo setbacks long after his death. Most such leaders can solely open political doors; leave behind alternative ways that did not exist before, and hope, as Gorbachev usually did publically, that what they began would be "irreversible." How is this......
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Why Did the 1905 Russian Revolution Fail
...system remaining strong, there was also a problem with the revolution itself. The revolt lacked any central coordination. The spontaneity of the revolutionary outbreaks meant that the armed forces, the police and the Black Hundreds could suppress them one by one. Not only was there the problem of control. The revolt lacked was direction. The revolutionaries had many different aims. For example, the liberals wanted to share power with the Tsar. The social revolutionaries wanted peasant ownership of land. The social democrats, who were divided between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks, wanted to completely change society and remove the Tsar. This meant that often, different radical parties would fight amongst themselves as much as they did whilst opposing the government. As well as the unorganised nature of the revolt, another reason for its failure was the ease with which the government managed to appease the revolutionaries. For example, the Tsar promised to set up a constitutional government, a range of civil rights, including freedom of speech, assembly and worship and the legalising of trade unions, which many liberals in particular saw as enough of a success to abort the revolution. This meant that through a combination of concession and repression the Tsarist’s government could easily control the revolution. The Russian defeat in the Russio-Japanese war was also a reason for its failure, although it too was a cause of the revolution. It was a failure on one...
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...Steve Confortini Professor John W. Szablewicz US History II 11/13/12 Anti-Progressivism Laissez-faire is defined by Merriam Webster as, “a doctrine opposing governmental interference in economic affairs beyond the minimum necessary for the maintenance of peace and property rights” (Merriam-Webster.com 1). By this, they mean Laissez-faire supports smaller government. I myself am a conservative who is a strong believer in Laissez-faire politics. But many people today disagree with my views. A large majority of people now support liberalism, which is another word for progressivism. Progressivism is defined by Dictionary.com as “favoring or promoting political or social reform through government action, or even revolution, to improve the lot of the majority” (Dictionary.com 3). This basically means that the government is larger, to protect the people. The main parts that will be focused on are the major events of the early 1900’s up until the 1950’s. There is a major importance to both of these styles of political ideology. They both helped us to obtain what we have today, the good and the bad things. Progressivism is a very important aspect of American culture and has helped carve America into the place that it is today. The progressivism movement started around the 1890’s and gained popularity especially during the Great Depression. During the early 1900’s conditions in the workplace were rough and the pay was low. People figured out that as a single person they had......
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Why Did Chartism Fail?
...Why did Chartism Fail? * Chartism failed because of economic factors – it was simply a ‘knife and fork question’ * Chartism failed because of the inherent weakness of the movement and internal divisions within the movement * Chartism did not really fail in the truest sense of the word – it was defeated by the state Economic Factors Some historians have argued that improving economic conditions ensured the Chartist movement faded after 1848 – there had been worsening economic conditions in the period after 1837 which gave rise to the chartist movement. After this period, the lessening economic instability, growing prosperity and rise in living standards after 1848 removed basis for widespread discontent. In economic prosperity – Chartism could no longer be sustained. The interpretation has been questioned in recent decades – economic historians began questioning how stable the British economy really was during this time in ‘Mid-Victorian Boom’ (1850-73) e.g. Cunningham – disagrees as he believes the economy continued to fluctuate. A series of subtle economic changes undermined the movement after 1848 and led to the movement’s eventual fall. 1. Development of Railways – Provided stimulus to industries; iron, steel and coal. Economic growth less narrowly based than in period before 1850 when textiles had been leading sector 2. Factory Legislation – Legislation redefined management practices and relationships in the workplace; 1850s-60s saw......
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Why Did Yannis Fail
...was similar to many of the other Gyro and custard stands here in Wisconsin. However, it had two things going for it: it had great custard and authentic traditional Gyro meat. However, it lacked a true leadership structure and inexperienced business owners. Though, I was not involved in the planning and set up of this particular restaurant, I did start within a month of this company being open. The company from the outside looked very sound, well planned, and greatly loved, however, once I began to poke around and learn the ins and outs of this company it was easy to see that there was major lacking in the management side of the company and a lack in the planning process. “Planning is a systematic process in which managers make decisions about future activities and the key goals that the organization intends to pursue.” (Reilly, Baack, & Minnick, 2014). Planning functions as the foundation for the remaining management functions, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. It gives direction for a company, as well as escalates an organizations chance for a higher success rate and potential to accomplishing its goals. Why did Yanni’s Fail on Planning? The first problem that this company possessed is that the owners had an idea what they wanted, but strayed away from it. They wanted a true Greek style fast food joint, but fell far from it. They had too many items on the menu and only two that were Greek. They were a cross between a small diner and a McDonalds. This......
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Why Did Carter Fail to Win Re-Election in 1980?
...Why did Carter fail to win re-election in 1980? Carter was one of the few presidents that did not manage to win a second term in office, which was down to a number of reasons, namely for his failures on foreign policy specifically in Iran, as well as his failings on the economy and with the energy crisis. Reagan also ran a very strong campaign and managed to appeal to voters far better than Carter, as they saw that he had a clear vision, something they did not see in the president. These factors all contributed to Reagan’s victory over Carter in 1980, even though the turnout was only 53% of the electorate. One main reason Carter did not manage to win the 1980 election was his weak handling of the Iran hostage crisis, which made him a victim of events that were out of his control. After Iranian militants stormed the American embassy in Tehran due to their protest against Carter allowing the exiled Shah to receive cancer treatment in the USA, they took 60 American hostages. The embassy was only supposed to be held for a few hours but the hostages were held until President Reagan was sworn into office. This made Carter look weak, especially after his failed rescue attempt which left more Americans dead and injured after some of the helicopters crashed. The hostage crisis dragged on throughout election year, and many felt that Carter had messed up everything. The energy crisis worsened Carter’s campaign. The United States had been economically self sufficient post world......
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Why Did the 1905 Revolution Fail
...tsar. The chief driving force of the 1905 Revolution was the main population, the peasants. But this class were not properly led by the political parties to seize power. Both the Social Democrats and Social Revolutionaries had wrong conceptions of the role they should take in the 1905 Revolution. They believed that the middle class revolution should take over the socialist revolution and that they should wait for the liberals to establish a middle class government in 1905. Thus they did not make use of the potential revolutionary strength of the masses to capture power from the Tzarist government as soon as the 1905 Revolution broke out. But the Liberals were too weak in number that they could not become an independent political force to replace the Tzarist government. The tsar then, could easily repress them The political programmes of the political parties failed to secure wholehearted support from the masses because their programmes did not represent the wishes of the masses. The Liberals did not include social and economic reforms in their programme. The programme of the Social Democrats spoke in favour of the establishment of a Socialist State through a class struggle but few of the workers understood revolutionary theories and they just wanted a better economic livelihood. The Social Revolutionaries wished for the control of land, or at least have a say in how it is run, but the peasants just wanted the division of large estates among themselves. In 1917 the......
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Why Did the 1905 Revolution Fail
...Why did the 1905 revolution fail? One of the main reasons that the 1905 revolution failed was because the October Manifesto merely only satisfied the middle classes’ appetite for reform. However this was only a short term change in government therefore it was not really a revolution because the changes were not permanent. To add, the readiness of the liberals to accept the government’s political and economical bribes indicted that they were not genuinely ready for a revolution at this time. Furthermore the duma did not have as much power as the tsar portrayed them to have. They were not able to pass laws and did not have any control on the state’s finance. To add, another reason why the 1905 revolution failed was because after the strong opposition shown by the first two Dumas, the tsar took away the vote from the people who wanted more change and also opposed the tsar. As a result of this, the electoral system was weighed in favour of the wealthy and those who supported the tsar. The tsar made a conscious decision to make sure that the third and fourth dumas were less openly obstructive and supportive of the tsar as they were keen to project an image of Russia as a democratic nation. This show’s why the 1905 revolution failed because the October Manifesto was not effective enough to cause an effective revolution Another main reason why the 1905 revolution failed was because of the Tsarist Government. They were highly effective in dispersing the revolution, whilst...
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Why Did the Spanish Armada Fail?
...he helped them. The Spanish Armada were led by the Duke of Medina- Sidonia and this was a very bad idea because he had no experience at fighting and he relied heavily on his more experienced captains. Philip thought he knew everything so he ignored advice that he would need 500 ships in order to succeed and ended up paying the price in the end. One of the other reasons why the Spanish Armada failed was because of their weapons. The Spanish had poor weapons and were not prepared for a sea battle. The Spanish also had long range canons and it took them up to 1 hour to reload because of the way that they were mounted. Whereas the English had short ranged canons and it only took 10 minutes to reload. They had short ranged canons because they did not want to get too close to the enemies and risk being boarded. The Spanish were really unprepared because some of their ships were unarmed. The English were able to hit and destroy Spanish ships now but the Spanish could not manage to retaliate and to make it worse, Some Spanish could not even defend themselves. A reason why the Spanish Armada failed was because of the quality of army that they had. They basically had no way of keeping in contact because they had no ship to ship communication. The Spanish had no phones, radios, satnavs (in those days they were not invented) that would be able to be used for communication. So if they had a change of plan or if they wanted to change direction, there would be no way for them to inform......
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Why Did the Spanish Armada Fail>
...didn't know this because of Parma's plan to keep it a secret that the invasion army was ready to give the English a surprise attack... unfortunately it didn't just fool the English, it fooled the Spanish as well. Communication was not the only problem the planning was put together so quickly, King Philip hadn't thought of the area at all. The coast where Parma's army were waiting the coast was very shallow and not a very steep gradient at all. The sand was less than 20 metres deep for up to a mile out to sea and the Armada’s ships needed at least 20 metres. This meant that the ships couldn't pick up the army. That problem was soon solved when the army managed to get lightweight barges to transport the army across. A new problem arose, how did they get across to the Armada without the Dutch fleet seeing them and attacking them. If they were spotted the Dutch could kill them all and the Armada couldn't do anything about it because of the shallow water....
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Populism and Progressivism
...[pic] |[pic] | | |3.5.3 Test (TS): Populism and | | |Progressivism | | |Test | | | | | | |[pic] | | |U.S. History since the Civil War (S2978848) | | |Billy Jean Bonilla-Davila | | | ...
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Why Did the Second Crusade Fail
...Why did the Second Crusade Fail? There are a number of reasons why the Second Crusade did not succeed. In my opinion, the most important factor in the failure of the Second Crusade was the poor leadership of both Louis VII and Conrad III. Had they been more competent leaders capable of seeing the big picture, they might have made it to the Near East with more of their force intact. The reason I name the poor leadership as the most important factor in their failure is because without good leadership, everything else falls apart. This includes relations with the locals, logistics, military cohesion and the ability to wage an effective campaign. Having two western kings lead the crusade was always going to be problematic as it created rivalry and tension. Furthermore, these two leaders went on the Crusade with very little guidance or instruction from the pope which meant that they were free to push their own agendas in the Near East, which becomes another source of tension. The Second Crusade is full of examples where these two leaders have done more harm than good and examples include; * Conrad losing control of his army in Byzantine territory, causing a riot and hurting relations with Manuel. * Conrad setting up camp in a flood plain, and then getting flooded. * Louis’ forces terrorising local traders. * Louis leaving Conrad and advancing through Mt Cadmus and subsequently getting ambushed by Seljuk archers, taking heavy casualties. Poor leadership is a more...
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General Management - Why Did the Strategic Plans Adopted by Companies Like Level 3 Global Crossing, and 360 Network Fail
... 1. What makes George David such a highly regarded manager? 2. How does David get things done through people? 3. What evidence can you see of David’s planning and strategizing, organizing, controlling, leading, and developing? 4. Which managerial competencies does David seem to posses? Does he seem to lack any? 5. Why did the strategic plans adopted by companies like level 3, Global crossing, and 360 Network fail? 6. The managers who ran these companies were smart, successful individuals, as were many of the investors who put money into their businesses. How could so many smart people have been so wrong? 7. What specific decision-making biases do you think were at work in this industry during the late 1990s and early 2000s? 8. What could the managers running these companies done differently that might have led to a different 9. 1. Why did Dow Chemical first adopt a matrix structure? What benefits did it hope to derive from his structure? 10. 2. What problems emerged with this structure? How did Dow try to deal with them? In retrospect, do you think those solutions were effective? 11. Why did Dow change its structure again in the mid-1990s? What was Dow trying to achieve this time? Do you think the current structure makes sense given the industry in which Dow operates and the strategy of the firm? Why? 12. Discuss McDonald's current situation from a human resource planning perspective 13. Is McDonald's taking the best......
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Essay on Progressivism
Thesis statement: it is hypothesized that Progressivism was a wide and varied movement that changed American values and lifestyles having everlasting impact on American history.
Progressivism, ranging from 1880 to 1920, was a well-planned and well-organized movement in the United States having wide as well as diversified goals. Leaders of progressivism movement focused on humanity element and tried to make advancements by promoting liberation to stimulate human force along with exploiting human potential to remove restraints imposed by contemporary liberalization. The paper will present an overview of Progressivism as a wide and varied movement. It will also discuss the goals of movement and mention some of the prominent people who took part in it. At the end, the significance of Progressivism to America will also be highlighted.
Progressivism - A Wide and Varied Movement
Progressivism expanded in American cities and confronted political mechanism full of monopolies and corrupt leaders. For the resolution of diversified problems existing at the local and state levels, progressivism focused on promoting idea of public ownership of government run by professional city bosses. Leaders of the movement strived to resolve the issues created by the wave of industrialization. At the time of movement the main problems confronted by the American society was the gigantic growth of cities and industries. Hundreds of thousands of African Americans started migrating to the northern cities. This huge wave of migration being main cause of growth coupled with disastrous working conditions presented a worse scenario.
The new comers strived to adapt to entirely new conditions at one hand while trying hard to maintain their distinctive culture and language system on the other creating a complex situation. Wealth concentrated in few hands and a large segment of people were caught in the vicious circle of poverty. Low wage-rates, dangerous working conditions, and long working hours were among several grave problems faced by most of the Americans. Swift technological advancements and rapid speed of industrialization altered the life styles of Americans.
In this context, progressive leaders advocated and strived to introduce reforms for solving the grave issues. Progressivism movement was wide in nature with varying goals. It introduced urban reforms and had offensive attitude towards dishonest leaders and corrupt political system. Leaders of progressive movement favored taking ownership of public utilities by government supporting different social welfare programs to resolve mainly the problems of immigrants, working class, and poor. At the state level, Progressive movement introduced specific democratic reforms. The purpose of democratic reforms was to allow American citizens to select leaders as per their choice, independently and freely.
Basically, the roots of Progressivism had been in the transitional era of United States from a nation comprising farmers to a nation of consumers and employees manipulated by large firms, exploiting and misusing resources, supported by the corrupt government. Progressive movement started with the intentions to rectify these problems. Moreover, it focused on providing solutions to the issues raised by urbanization and industrialization, as discussed above.
Progressive leaders felt that their democratic reforms were threatened by the corrupt governmental policies and dishonest leaders. Progressivism confronted ending corporate power and to abolish monopolies. Democracy, they believed, was the solution of problems faced by most of the Americans, especially lower class. They tried to protect working people and aimed to break the vicious circle of poverty by eliminating the gap between different social classes.
It is pertinent to mention that Progressive movement was wide in a sense that it included both Democrats and Republicans. The movement heavily impacted the political structure at local, state, and national levels. It had significant influence on cultural and social life of America. It was, in fact, a dynamic movement introducing reforms at varied platforms including democratic, social, and political fronts. The agenda also had variety and diversification. It comprises social as well as political agenda. However, the main aims were elimination of corruption, protecting common people especially lower- class, elimination the continuous gap between different social classes, and promoting scientific as well as technological developments ensuring welfare of people.
With varying nature and wider in scope, Progressivism concentrated on providing effective tools to build trust of people in government and business organizations. However, a small group in the Progressive movement also supported ownership of production by government. Amendments to the Constitution showed their priorities at the political front as they provided new ways for electing senators and tried to eliminate monopolies. The wide spectrum of Progressivism can be viewed from the fact that not only it focused on fighting at the political platform, the movement tried to address the problem of urbanization. It is also pertinent to highlight the shortcomings of Progressive movement as their failure in the areas of limiting child labor and not addressing racial problems of blacks especially African Americans who had migrated from South. At the end of first phase of Progressive movement ranging from 1880 to 1920, the election of 1912 was fought by contenders with Progressive approach having varied goals from different labor issues to problems at political as well as social level. More power was given to Congress in this era. Election of Senators was to be made by the public and women gained voting powers in this particular era.
Goals of Progressivism and People who Took Part in It
Progressivism was a movement starting at the end of nineteenth century (1880) and ended in the second decade of twentieth century (1920). In this era tremendous changes at the economic, social, and political level were made. People taking part in the movement had diversified backgrounds, different political views, and varied social interests. It included political leaders from both Democrats and Republicans. The movement was led by people of different groups comprising teachers, political leaders, labor leaders, religious leaders, journalists, from both genders. It included famous people like; Theodore Roosevelt- President of the United States; Woodrow Wilson- President of the United States; Robert M. La Follette, former governor of Wisconsin.
Muckrakers, a group of journalists such as Lincoln Steffens and Ida Tarbell, exposed corruption practices in government and highlighted business scandals. They portrayed the miserable working conditions of poor and exploitations of large industries along with issues of concentration of wealth. Henry Ford introduced a lucrative pay scale for his workers during Progressive era. Among prominent ladies were Lucy Burns- an advocate of women's rights, and Jane Adams- a social worker and first women winner of the Noble Peace Prize. As regards goals of Progressivism, one of them was 'social welfare' aiming to provide social justice to everyone irrespective of social class. It strived to eliminate differences in social classes and supported attaining social justice by promoting the idea of charity and welfare by large organizations. For this purpose a large force comprising social workers was prepared and trained to perform their task effectively. Second goal of Progressivism was 'promotion of moral improvement', for example women's Suffrage by providing women the right to vote. Certain prohibition laws were introduced, for example Progressive leaders were of the view that usage of alcohol limited thinking and working of a person. Third goal was to provide 'economic reforms' by regulating especially large corporations to ensure independence and remove restrictions imposed by capitalism. The fourth main goal of Progressivism was 'efficiency'. Among other ideas, it included creating professional city manager to run affairs at local, state, and national level more effectively. Moreover, leaders of Progressivism reduced powers given to local wards through effective organization of city governments.
Lasting Significance of Progressivism to American History
The Progressive period is known for its tremendous successful efforts having everlasting impact on American economy and society by making remarkable changes at the social, economical, and political levels. Although, reformers of this movement belonged to a diversified group from labor and religious leaders, journalists, politicians, and teachers- both men and women- one thing common among them was to protect people, especially working class, solve problems of urbanization and industrialization, and concentrate on social welfare of American people. At the end of the movement by 1920, newly formed laws at state, local, and national level changed the entire scenario of America in all three major areas; economic, social, and political, having everlasting impact on the country.
Efforts have been made in the paper to present everlasting impact of Progressivism - a wide and varied movement from 1880 to 1920- that brought tremendous changes at the economic, social, and political levels of America. Goals of the movement and people who took part in it have also been highlighted. On the basis of arguments presented in paper it is concluded that Progressivism movement had an everlasting impact on America changing American values and lifestyles.